Tuesday, January 21, 2020
The Adventure of the Speckled Band by Sir Arthur Conan-Doyle (1892), The Ostler by Wilkie Collins (1855), and The Signalman by Charles Dickens (1864). All of these are mystery stories How do the writers try to create excitement, mystery and suspense? Which of the stories you have read was the most successful and why? I have chosen to write about three stories Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËThe Adventure of the Speckled BandÃ¢â¬â¢ by Sir Arthur Conan-Doyle (1892), Ã¢â¬ËThe OstlerÃ¢â¬â¢ by Wilkie Collins (1855), and Ã¢â¬ËThe SignalmanÃ¢â¬â¢ by Charles Dickens (1864). All of these are mystery stories that have been written in a similar way, with classic Ã¢â¬Ëmystery and suspenseÃ¢â¬â¢ techniques. These stories were all written in the nineteenth century, and reflect this period with the use of old language and settings. Also the use of horses & carriage and the disadvantage of there being no electricity. Many archaisms are used in all three of the stories and these reflect the period. Nobody would use such language today, which also helps to draw the reader into the story because the reader has to concentrate on the complicated language and long sentences. The narrative structure in Ã¢â¬ËThe SignalmanÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËThe OstlerÃ¢â¬â¢ is very similar, with both narrators reliving the stories and telling them to the reader, where as, in the Ã¢â¬ËSpeckled BandÃ¢â¬â¢, the reader seems to be being told the story as it happens. In the Ã¢â¬ËSpeckled BandÃ¢â¬â¢ even though he is speaking from a time after the events of the story Dr Watson tells us the story as it happens so you feel included, as though you are there in the story with the characters. This also makes the story seem more believable Ã¢â¬â factual rather than fictional Ã¢â¬â that it actually happened and that Dr Watson was there. This allows us to share his thoughts and feelings to further include us in the story. For example Ã¢â¬ËI find many tragic, some comic, a large number merely strange.Ã¢â¬â¢ This shows us Dr WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings. Sherlock Holmes is one of the main characters in this story and he is very well known for his success as a detective. He is visited by a young woman (Helen Stoner), who needs his help after the very sudden and unexplained death of her sister, as she is worried for her own safety. This character actually narrates the first part of the story (after WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s introduction), while she tells Sherlock Holmes of the unsolved mystery. Her story is told in first person narrative so the reader relives the time when her sister dies. Pathetic fallacy is again used to create an ideal setting for a murder.
Monday, January 13, 2020
How has computing machine choping inferred modern society? In this transition I will be speaking briefly about the basicss of computing machine choping from the yesteryear to the present. Computer hacking has changed more over clip ensuing in computing machine outgrowths to corporate system closures. This research paper will be speaking about three major parts of computing machine hacking. The first construct of hacking is the beginning of creative activity. The following portion will be how hacking has affect on the contemporary society. Finally. the last piece of information will be traveling over the hereafter of system choping. What is a drudge you may inquire your ego but non hold an reply or one word phrase for the term? A drudge has ever been a sort of cutoff or alteration. a manner to short-circuit or make over the standard operation of an object or system. The first computing machine hackers emerge at MIT. They borrow their name from a term to depict members of a theoretical account train group at the school who hack the electric trains. paths. and switches to do them execute faster and otherwise. A few of the members transfer their wonder and set uping accomplishments to the new mainframe calculating systems being studied and developed on campus. Choping groups begin to organize. Among the first are Legion of Doom in the United States. and Chaos Computer Club in Germany. The film Ã¢â¬Å"War GamesÃ¢â¬ introduces the populace to choping. A computing machine hacker intends to destroy concerns executing an act much more unprincipled than an enthusiastic life scientist Ã¢â¬ËhackingÃ¢â¬â¢ off at work or theory. The truth is that computing machine hacking is in fact easy in the general sense. but more consideration must be given. Some facets of choping are used in mundane life and you may non cognize that accessing wireless cyberspace from another personÃ¢â¬â¢s history is considered wireless choping even though your adoption there connexion. During the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s. a different sort of hacker appeared: the phreaks or phone hackers. They learned ways to chop the telephonic system and do phone calls for free. Within these group of people. a phreaker became celebrated because a simple find. John Draper. besides known as Captain Crunch. found that he could do long distance calls with a whistling. He built a blue box that could make this and the Esquire magazine published an article on how to construct them. Fascinated by this find. two childs. Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs. decided to sell these bluish boxes. get downing a concern friendly relationship which resulted in the initiation of Apple. By the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s. phreaks started to migrate to computing machines. and the first Bulletin Board Systems ( BBS ) appeared. BBS are like the yokel groups of today. were people posted messages on any sort of subject. The BBS used by hackers specialized in tips on how to interrupt into computing machines. how to utilize stolen recognition card Numberss and portion stolen computing machine watchwords. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until 1986 that the U. S. authorities realized the danger that hackers represented to the national security. As a manner to antagonize this threat. the Congress passed the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. doing computing machine interrupting a offense across the state. During the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. when the usage of the cyberspace became widespread around the universe. hackers multiplied. but it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until the terminal of the decennary that systemÃ¢â¬â¢s security became mainstream among the populace. Today. we are accustomed to hackers. crackers. viruses. Trojans. worms and all of the techniques we need to follow to battle them. Hackers were classified into three unusual types the first class is called In-house hacker. In-house hacker is an employee who is responsible for operating and keeping the system. who interacts instantly with the system as a coder or informations entry employee and is cognizant of all the system security capablenesss and spreads. He and should be the guard of the system but for different motives he hacks the system and gets what he needs bewraying all the trust given to him. The 2nd type is called ace hacker who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t interact with the system but at the same clip proctors the system on day-to-day footing and has an oculus on what is traveling on and what type of informations is entered at what clip so depending on the entries he decides the minute he should acquire these information and recover them for personal motives while the 3rd type is called professional hacker and this hacker is really strong and capable of acquiring any type of informations. he has the ability of carrying the user or the operator to supply him with the needed information by programming fast ones or user friendly screens and this sort of hackers frequently gets alone preparation specially when being used in military undertakings as what happened in the cold war. Thesiss are merely brief ways hackers have impacted the modern universe we all live in. Within the past twelvemonth at that place have been two major instances right in the country. Both involve extended harm. and both are presently in tribunal. The closest instance is that of Thomas Crandall. otherwise known as St. ElmoÃ¢â¬â¢s Fire. Crandall is accused of estroying attending and subject records in a computing machine at Central Technical and Vocational Center. Police charge that Crandall used a personal computing machine at his place to entree the computing machine. He is besides accused of making $ 25. 000 in harm to files at Waste Management Inc. of Oakbrook. Ill. CrandallÃ¢â¬â¢s lawyer claims that many other pupils besides had entree to the computing machine. and that to individual out Crandall in unjust. Hackers are responsible of the immense development in computing machine and cyberspace engineering. but these yearss we consider them as stealers and interlopers who penetra ted our ain privateness and used the accomplishments they were buttockss for their ain benefit. Hackers have different sentiments and motives. However. they all portion the spirit of challenge and ever seeking to turn out their capablenesss of making what all believe is impossible possibly because they were mistreated. or uncertainties surrounded their abilities and past accomplishments. Hackers believe that information should be shared and they fight against information owning. Effectss that choping caused and still doing to the society canÃ¢â¬â¢t be ignored. Hacking nowadays is taking new stages and the danger is increasing because we are now populating in a society that runs by ICT. and any onslaught to the ICT particularly in advanced states will do critical effects. ICT still lacks a powerful security tools that are capable of tracking. catching hackers. and protecting computing machine systems from their onslaughts. My ain position is that the best manner to protect ICT from hackers is to analyze their psychological science and seek to understand their manner of thought. because hackers are human existences. who have two sides ; evil and good. and they used to demo their good side but all of a sudden they turned to be evil. The grounds which caused the transmutation from good to evil persons should be studied and given the highest precedence in the war against hackers because since we put our custodies on the cause. we can repair it to make for better effects. Peoples can grocery store. earn grades. receive bank statements and pay measures from their laptop or Personal computer. The possibilities are endless when it comes to simplifying life with the aid of the World Wide Web. but at the same clip possibilities are eternal hackers to perplex your life with cyber offenses. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines a hacker as both Ã¢â¬Å"an expert at programming and work outing jobs with a computerÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"a individual who illicitly additions entree to and sometimes tamping bars with information in a computing machine system. Ã¢â¬ Those three grounds I have stated above were the hackings past present and future. Until engineering Michigans turning the possibility of hackers is limited less.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
A heavy metal is a dense metal that is (usually) toxic at low concentrations. Although the phrase heavy metal is common, there is no standard definition assigning metals as heavy metals.Ã Characteristics of Heavy Metals Some lighter metals and metalloids are toxic and, thus, are termed heavy metals though some heavy metals, such as gold, typically are not toxic. Ã¢â¬â¹ Most heavy metals have a high atomic number, atomic weight and a specific gravity greater than 5.0 Heavy metals include some metalloids, transition metals, basic metals, lanthanides,Ã and actinides. Although some metals meet certain criteria and not others, most would agree the elements mercury, bismuth, and lead are toxic metals with sufficiently high density. Examples of heavy metals include lead, mercury, cadmium, sometimes chromium. Less commonly, metals including iron, copper, zinc, aluminum, beryllium, cobalt, manganese and arsenic may be considered heavy metals. List of Heavy Metals If you go by the definition of a heavy metal as a metallic element with a density greater than 5, then the list of heavy metals is: TitaniumVanadiumChromiumManganeseIronCobaltNickelCopperZincGalliumGermaniumArsenicZirconiumNiobiumMolybdenumTechnetiumRutheniumRhodiumPalladiumSilverCadmiumIndiumTinTelluriumLutetiumHafniumTantalumTungstenRheniumOsmiumIridiumPlatinumGoldMercuryThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineLanthanumCeriumPraseodymiumNeodymiumPromethiumSamariumEuropiumGadoliniumTerbiumDysprosiumHolmiumErbiumThuliumYtterbiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumUraniumNeptuniumPlutoniumAmericiumCuriumBerkeliumCaliforniumEinsteiniumFermiumNobeliumRadiumLawrenciumRutherfordiumDubniumSeaborgiumBohriumHassiumMeitneriumDarmstadtiumRoentgeniumCoperniciumElements 113-118 Keep in mind, this list includes both natural and synthetic elements, as well as elements that are heavy, but necessary for animal and plant nutrition.
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Our Iceberg is Melting: Changing and Succeeding Under Any Conditions John Kotter and has produced a great book that contains a wealth of wisdom and insight. While it looks and reads like a simple book, it is anything but simple. The message which Kotter is able to make clear goes much deeper than the surface story of a colony of penguins in search of answers pertaining to their survival on an iceberg. He easily describes a scenario through a penguin colony that any person can relate to and think about in a more in-depth manner. The fable is entertaining and interesting and deals with how a penguin colony deals with change that has become inevitable if they are to survive. The story revolves around a penguin colony in AntarcticaÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It is one which the whole colony can agree upon because they all were involved in the process in some form. Communication was an important factor which could not be ignored if any results were going to be seen. The leadership council in this story made sure that everyone in the penguin community (also could be thought of as the office) was aware of the conversations regarding the iceberg and the changes that were taking place. The end of the story describes a once permanent colony living on one iceberg now living nomadically. This is quite a change for them and one which we can learn a lot from. I found this book thoroughly enjoyable as it was both entertaining and educational. I enjoy reading anything that may seem like there is not much depth to, but when you sit back and think about how it relates to your actual life, is really quite remarkable. The process of change as outlined in the book is a great model for your personal life and especially your work life. It not only told a tale, but showed that just a regular penguin (employee) can step forward at any time with an idea or observation and speak his mind. Its inspirational because we all think of ourselves as the regular penguin. But we too, can make a difference. All you have to do is find one person who will listen, and they are certainly out there. From that point, persistence and belief is important. Leadership at that point is also very important. Dont back away fromShow MoreRelatedUse Of Metaphor Intervention : A New Approach For Working With Systems Divided By Conflict And Caught Essay827 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdefensive perception. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 26: 219-239. Blanchard, Kenneth. 1981. The one minute manager. New York: Berkley. Bretts, J. A. 2008. A fable that powerfully conveys management ideas.Book review, Amazon.co.uk, http://www.amazon.co.uk/Our-Iceberg-Melting-Succeeding-Conditions/ Brown, John Seely, Stephen Denning, Larry S. Prusak and Katalina Groh. 2005. Storytelling in organizations: Why storytelling is transforming 21st century organizations and management. Oxford: ElsevierRead MoreEssay on The Global Warming Controversy3199 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesThese scientists believe humans are the source and solution to the problem. Global warming, regardless of the source, is causing many adverse effects to the planet, such as the affect it causes on aquatic animals and the melting icecaps. Scientists believe that by cutting our carbon emissions through political action and finding alternative sources of energy we can stop the damages of global warming. The world today is divided in two different points of view regarding global warming. AlthoughRead MoreRhetorical Analysis on Energy Disaster1068 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrate we currently use it will Ã¢â¬Å"guarantee the equivalent of two, three, four or more Gulf oil-spill-style disasters in our energy futureÃ¢â¬ (Klare 1). In reference to Michael T. KlareÃ¢â¬â¢s background, he is a (PAWSS) Professor and affiliated with the Peace and World Security Studies and the School of Critical Social Inquiry. In addition, Klare is also the author of numerous books, and example, Ã¢â¬Å"Blood and OilÃ¢â¬ (2004). Klare has written a number of articles in magazines such as Arms Control TodayRead MoreThe Crisis Management Of Philippines Essay894 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFilipino researches on the importance of understanding organization behavior using an indigenous concept.Ã¢â¬ Aves (2011) Ã¢â¬Å"LewinÃ¢â¬â¢s model of unfreeze-change-refreeze and KotterÃ¢â¬â¢s Eight Steps for Leading Change and insights from his book entitled Our Iceberg Is Melting informed the framework, research methods, and specific questions of this study. Through key informant interviews, focus-group discussions, and survey, this study gathered and analyzed the actual experience of the employees of NationalRead MoreBusiness Meeting Etiquette3964 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pagesmost important, that way communication can be maximized. In the book our Iceberg is melting by John Kotter. One Penguin notices a danger with the environment of the colony and Iceberg. He begins to communicate his concerns through a series of meetings with some resistance and discussion. Meetings are held with his peers, as well as with the elders of the colony. A different approach is used for the different settings. This book is allegorical depiction of practical aspects of business meetingsRead MoreThe World Is Blue Reflection Essay1790 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Review and analysis by: Kylee Luckett Ã¢â¬Å"It is our choices...that show what we truly are, far more than our abilities.Ã¢â¬ -Albus Dumbledore They say only a few will ever speak loud enough to be heard over the other seven billion voices on the planet. Today someone is shouting. Screaming off of the pages of Ã¢â¬Å"The World is BlueÃ¢â¬ is Sylvia Earle, National Geographic SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s Explorer in Residence, and vast contributor to the effort to preserve the planetÃ¢â¬â¢s oceans. EarleÃ¢â¬â¢s book is notRead MoreAn Assignment On Strategic Change Management Model3280 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesworldÃ¢â¬ . To follow this adage, there are management in organizations for change. Kurt Lewin developed the change management model appropriate for several organizations. John P. Kotter (2012) developed a new model of change management in 1995 in his book Ã¢â¬Å"Leading ChangeÃ¢â¬ . These 2 are the most suitable and familiar change management models in organizations and an organizational context is analyzed in this assignment to evaluate the application of change management in organization. Wilkinson has beenRead MoreJohn Kotter4522 Words Ã |Ã 19 Pages[pic] Executive Summary This research paper will focus on John KotterÃ¢â¬â¢s eight stage process for leading change. Kotter introduced this eight-stage model as a way of looking at the actual stages of the change process itself. This enables us to map our organizational system with the process of change (Leban Stone, 2008). Without a comprehsive roadmap or model for guiding the change process, organizational leaders may fall short in implementing their strategies for change (Leban Stone, 2008)Read MoreAn Introduction to Intercultural Communication29172 Words Ã |Ã 117 Pagesguidelines on a country or culture. These guidelines simply act as an intercultural safety net people can turn to when uncertain. Only through experience can people really apply true intercultural knowledge and competency. Intercultural Training and the Iceberg Model Many people question what culture is. How can it be defined? What analogies can be used to describe it? In intercultural training one of the questions that is often asked of participants is to think what culture means to them. What pictureRead MoreProject Mgmt296381 Words Ã |Ã 1186 PagesCritical chain method Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Reducing Project Duration Leadership Chapter 2 Organization Strategy and Project Selection 1.4 Projects and programs (.2) 1.4.1 Managing the portfolio 1.4.3 Strategy and projects 2.3 Stakeholders and review boards 12.1 RFPÃ¢â¬â¢s and vendor selection (.3.4.5) 184.108.40.206 SWAT analysis 220.127.116.11 Schedule compression 18.104.22.168 Leadership skills G.1 Project leadership 10.1 Stakeholder management Chapter 11 Teams Chapter 3 Organization: Structure and
Thursday, December 19, 2019
The individual I chose for my exposition is Muhammad Ali, and before you inquire! I am not a boxer, and I don t battle anybody, in any case it interests me seeing such character which was not just one of the best competitors of all time, he was also the front cover of Times magazines 4 times ever, could take 100 thousand fans to a football stadium to watch a boxing match, but on the other hand was conflicted as the twentieth century that helped shape and by whom was shaped. I appreciate such characters, which can surpass all life troublesome and change history. It was a hot and crispy morning in Arizona when one of the greatest legends of sports died after fighting respiratory problems and Parkinson disease for over 30 years. If I could ask this one question to Ali: Who are you? I am sure this would be his answer: I am Muhammad Ali the greatest of the greatestÃ¢â¬ ¦ For many people this could be called exaggeration, an excess of confidence, among other things, to me it could be simply summarized in one term Grit. Born in Louisville, Kentucky in 1942, he had every one of the fixings to end up only a customary individual. His house was not the most amicable environment for an African-American individual amid that time encountering childhood in the confined South, he experienced racial bias and partition firsthand. Experiencing childhood in a low-pay neighborhood was challenging, for example, when his bicycle got stolen at 12 years old, Ali as of now showed early indications ofShow MoreRelatedDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pagesindex. ISBN 978-0-13-612100-8 1. ManagementÃ¢â¬â-Study and teaching. 2. ManagementÃ¢â¬âProblems, exercises, etc. Kim S. II. Title. HD30.4.W46 2011 658.40071 173Ã¢â¬âdc22 I. Cameron, 2009040522 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 ISBN 10: 0-13-612100-4 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-612100-8 B R I E F TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S Preface xvii Introduction 1 PART I 1 2 3 PERSONAL SKILLS 44 Developing Self-Awareness 45 Managing Personal Stress 105 Solving Problems Analytically and Creatively 167 PART II 4Read MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 PagesSolidarity Remembered Janis Appier, Policing Women: The Sexual Politics of Law Enforcement and the LAPD Allen Hunter, ed., Rethinking the Cold War Eric Foner, ed., The New American History. Revised and Expanded Edition E SSAYS ON _ T WENTIETH- C ENTURY H ISTORY Edited by Michael Adas for the American Historical Association TEMPLE UNIVERSITY PRESS PHILADELPHIA Temple University Press 1601 North Broad Street Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 www.temple.edu/tempress
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Growth rate of a seed Essay Problem: How does the amount of light affect the growth rate of a seed?Literature Search: This experiment is only trying to verify the answer since this question has been proven before. Others have also proven that seeds germinate at the same rate at the early stages no matter how much or how little sunlight there is. Once the radicle brakes trough and the plant starts to use photosynthesis to produce energy and grow. Since sunlight is needed in photosynthesis, the plant with more sunlight starts to grow more rapidly then the plant that lacks sunlight. Hypothesis: If the seed is exposed to sunlight then the seed will grow more then the seed that is kept in the dark. Experimental design: I took the four seeds and divided theme into groups of two. I placed theme inside a paper towel which was inside a cup. I water both of the cups and placed one in the closet, where it was dark. The other cup I placed on the ledge, where there was a large amount of light at all times. Each day I provided the seed with the equal amount of water. In this experiment I had one control which was the plant in the dark. Results and conclusion: My hypothesis was correct. As you can see from the data graphs at first the seeds germinated at the same rate until the tip of the radicle broke trough and was visible. Afterwards the seed which was in the light grew more rapidly then the seed which was in the dark. I think this happened because when the seed is in the early stages of germination it does not use light to grow but is controlled by phytochrome. Which is a hormone that controls the germination of a seed before it reaches light. After the radicle broke trough, the seed needed sunlight for photosynthesis, so they plant which was deprived of sunlight grew slower then the plant which got sunlight. REFERENCES:1.Hartman, H.. Plant Propagation. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. , 1990. Janick, J. 2.Horticultural Science. New York: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1986.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Pharmaceutical Industry in India Essay Industry overview Pharmaceutical sector is an important industry of any modern day economic power. Pharmaceutical industry in India has a very humble past. After independence, development of pharmaceutical industry was one of the top agenda of government along with steel and manufacturing industry. The market was protected against competition for a long period of time by giving incentives to small firms, license-raj etc. Today the Indian pharmaceutical industry is the front-runner science-based industries in the country. Today the industry boasts of wide ranging capabilities in the complex field of drug manufacture and technology. The sector is pegged to be worth US$ 7. 3 billion. The annual growth rate is estimated to be around 13%. Reports suggest that the domestic retail market would be worth around US$ 12 billion by 2012. Indian pharmaceutical industry ranks 4th in terms of volume globally and 13th in terms of value. It has 8% share in global sales 20%-24% share in production of generic drugs. The domestic players satisfy almost all of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s demand for formulations and bulk drugs. Indian firms arenÃ¢â¬â¢t limited to domestic market; they are now competing head on with multi national players in international arena. For many firms, exports constitute 60%-70% of the total revenue earned. Reasons for this strong growth are low cost of manufacturing, low cost of RD, innovative scientific manpower etc. The total pharmaceutical exports in 2007-08 clocked US$ 6. 68 billion against US$ 5. 73 billion in 2006-07 recording a growth rate of 16 per cent. India is poised to be one of the fastest growing pharmaceutical markets in the world. We will write a custom essay sample on Pharmaceutical Industry in India specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Pharmaceutical Industry in India specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Pharmaceutical Industry in India specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This has led to entry of many major companies in the Indian market and a huge amount of FDI inflow. Evolution of the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry The Indian regulatory system made several arrangements to protect the domestic pharmaceutical industry from foreign competition in its nascent phase. One of them was recognition of only process patents. This built a sound and strong base for strong and competitive domestic market but deterred entry of foreign players. The life of Indian pharmaceutical industry can be broadly divided into two phases, namely Pre-Patent regime and Post-Patent regime respectively. Lets take a look at both of them in detail: Pre-Patent Regime: This period can be segmented into various time periods for better understanding: 1947-1970 During this period country was trying to stand on its feet after gaining independence. The pharmaceutical industry had to be built from scratch. Though several domestic players had sprung up in market but their impact on market was limited. The reason was their inability to compete with MNC players who had better access to resources, better technical know how and access to larger amount of funds. These foreign players imported formulations and sold them in India. They were neither contributing to pharmaceutical industries nor to the manufacturing industries in India. People had low spending and restricted access to healthcare facilities because of low levels of income. The government had realized that dependence on imported drugs had to be reduced so that essential drugs could be made available to public at cheap prices. For this country needed to build indigenous drug production capabilities. To fulfill this objective Hindustan Antibiotics Limited (HAL) and Indian Drugs Pharmaceutical Limited (IDPL) were setup in 1954 and 1961 respectively. These companies soon established themselves as major producers of critical drugs, which, were being imported at that time. 1970-1979 The MNCs continued to dominate the domestic market in spite of steps taken by government. Government introduced two legislations in 1970 to accelerate the process of self-reliance and indigenization. These were Indian Patent Act and Drug Price Control Order (DPCO). These two regulations provided the launch pad for the Indian pharmaceutical industry to take off into a new growth spiral. Indian Patent Act: The act granted patents only for methods and processes used to manufacture the substance. This allowed the domestic players to reverse engineer the drugs present in market and find its constituents. They started making the product using the same bulk drug by using a modified production process. Drug Price Control Order: Government regulated prices of 354 essential bulk drugs and formulations to ensure wide spread availability of drugs at a reasonable price. These two legislations changed the industry structure and growth pattern. Several small-scale ndustries (SSI) came into existence in formulation business. They had significant advantage as their products were out of purview of price control. Low entry barriers, abundance of bulk drugs and dispersed market acted as additional catalysts. All these factors had a significant impact on the position of MNCs in India. These regulations introduced the concept of price control did not recognize product patents. Therefor e the MNCs had no incentive of introducing new drugs in the market. Their overall share in formulations started to decline as time progressed. 1979-1987 Government in 1979 amended DPCO. Number of drugs under purview of DPCO was bought down from 354 to 163. Government also increased the permissible mark-up on drugs from 40%-60% to 75%-100%. DPCO also regulated the production by fixing ratio between formulation and key bulk drugs. This ensured continuous and uninterrupted supply of key bulk drugs. Investments made by government in past had started bearing fruit. IDPL and HAL provided technical assistance to smaller players in establishing their foothold. Hence even smaller players started to supply critical drugs to market. Indian firms started to invest in RD because of availability of skilled researchers in country. This resulted in launch of new drugs through process re-engineering. Government funded Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI) and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) made major contribution to the research base. Indian firms had advantage of low cost structure and very good reverse engineering technical skills. After they had established themselves in domestic market they turned their attention towards export. They took measures to utilize their advantage in global arena and were quite successful. There was no improvement in conditions of MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s. High tariffs caused the prices of their product to go up. Price control measures taken by government directed them to sell at cheaper price. Therefore they focused on specific sectors where they still had a stronghold. They were reluctant to launch new products in country because of lack of proper patent protection. This resulted in overall decline of their market share. 1987-1994 This was a consolidation period of the industry. The entire industry registered a double-digit growth rate through the period. This high growth rate was attributed to rise in per-capita income of people and introduction of new drugs at cheap price. The increase wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t limited to domestic market. While bulk drug production grew at CAGR of 16%, bulk drug export grew at CAGR of 40%. By 1994 exports comprised 50% of total bulk drug production. To meet the ever-increasing demand, companies had to invest heavily in increasing their capacities. High growth rate also attracted new players to the market. Competition in market increased manifold as the number of players in the market doubled over this period. Most important development of this period was liberalization program initiated by the government. The tariff barriers were lowered which leveled the playing field for MNCs vis-a-vis domestic players. This also increased foreign investment in domestic pharmaceutical industry. The liberalization policy also benefited domestic players who made efforts to increase their global presence due to lower tariff and non-tariff barriers. 1995-2001 The major development of this phase was governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to recognize product patent regime after 2005. This increased the expectation of MNCs. Most of them increased their equity stakes in Indian operations. MNCs also realized that they could convert India into their manufacturing base. India had quality manufacturing facilities at cheap costs. Domestic firms too had saturated Indian market. They were focusing on global markets more seriously now. They entered into alliances with MNCs, entered into JVÃ¢â¬â¢s in overseas market, set up world-class manufacturing facilities and strengthened their brands to strengthen their position. The small players finally came of age and gave serious competition to their bigger counterparts. Even though market grew at 15% intense competition from smaller players pushed the bigger players towards generic formulations. Bulk drugs had lower margins because of intense competition. To overcome this most players forward-integrated into formulation manufacturing or increased their export to non-regulated markets where margins were higher. 2001-2004 During this period domestic players increased their focus on market of generic drugs. They invested in RD and upgraded their manufacturing facilities to comply with GMP norms. During this period the domestic formulations market registered a decline, barring a few segments. MNCs were strengthening their interest in domestic market as product patent regime was to be implemented in 2005. Post-Patent Regime 2005-2006 Government passed an ordinance in 2005 implementing the product-patent regime. This move was aimed at bringing India at par with global pharmaceutical market. Other major developments during this period were implementation of VAT, shift in excise duty levy to MRP based levy and implementation of good manufacturing processes. During this period Indian players established themselves in global market with their innovatively engineered generic drugs API. 2006-2007 The new pharmaceutical policy has been center of attraction. Government wanted to bring essential drugs on which the manufacturers made fat profits under the purview of DPCO. The proposed pharmaceutical policy was aimed at bringing 354 essential drugs under purview of DPCO so that they are within reach of common man. The policy has provision of limiting MAPE to 150% to put a cap on profits earned by pharmaceutical firms. The duties on API were reduced to encourage manufacturing. Government has also set up NPPA to regulate pricing of drugs in India. Companies will have to sell their drugs at price decided by NPPA. Regulatory Environments in various parts of the world Europe The European Medicines Agency (EMEA) is the apex body, which governs medicine industry in Europe. Scientific opinions of the agency are prepared by committees i. e. the committee for medicinal products for human use (CHMP), the committee for medicinal products for veterinary use (CVMP), the committee for orphan medicinal products for rare diseases (COMP) and the new committee on herbal medicinal products (HMPC). EMEA performs the scientific evaluation of the quality, safety and efficacy of medicinal products in EU. EMEA also coordinates the resources for scientific evaluation and assessment regarding products undergoing the mutual recognition procedure and the master files for plasma and vaccine antigens. EMEA also provides guidance for companies requesting scientific advice. It also provides scientific advice before the application of new marketing authorization for centralized and mutual recognition procedures. Scientific Advice Working Party (SAWP) does this task. In order to sell products in EU markets firm have to obtain a license. This license is granted by CHMP after it assesses the product in question. European Pharmacopoeia (Ph Eur) specifies the quality specifications for pharmaceutical preparations and their ingredients. Before submitting a Marketing Authorization Application (MAA) the firm is required to show the safety and efficacy of the medicinal product. To show this local clinical data should be generated for a new medicinal product. Thus it is necessary to conduct clinical trails before launching a product in EU. If the product has already proved safety and efficacy in some other country then a bridging clinical study is sufficient. The initial license granted to a firm has to be renewed after five years. The risk-benefit balance is revaluated. If the result of re-evaluation is positive then the firm is granted the license for unlimited period of time unless the competent authority decides otherwise. In cases of drugs that require long-term safety study, the license for unlimited period is usually granted after 2-3 re-evaluations. The EU pharmaceutical legislation is very extensive and robust. In order to ensure high quality and safe therapies it provides extensive rules and guidance on licensing procedures for medicinal products. USA Pharmaceutical sector in USA is regulated by the department of Health and Human Services. The apex regulatory body is US FDA, which enforces the basic drug and food legislations. When a drug manufacturer develops a new drug, first the drug is tested on animals. Then he obtains approval for human trials through Investigational New Drug (IND). The data collected through human clinical trials in IND and animal studies is used to file a New Drug Application (NDA). NDA is used to communicate to FDA about safety and effectiveness of the drug, high quality manufacturing standard for the drug and appropriate labeling of the drug. New drugs are developed under patent protection. This grants exclusive marketing rights to the developer of the drug. After expiry of the patent period, other firms can sell a copy of the drug. This copied version of drug is called as generic drug. In order to get approval from FDA to sell generic drugs, firms must file for an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA). Generic drug sector became very lucrative because the manufacturers of generic drugs didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to invest in costly animal studies and human clinical trials. Also the pharmacists were given the right to sell substitute generic drugs instead of a specific drug unless explicitly specified by the doctor. To get an FDA approval for their ANDA the firms had to ensure that their drugs contains the same amount of active ingredient as the original drug, it should be identical in dosage form, strength and administration method and manufactured under the same manufacturing standards as for the original drug. A Drug Master File (DMF) is submitted to FDA that contains almost all information related o the drug. Some information in the file may be of confidential nature. India In India both the central government and the state government share the responsibility of regulating the pharmaceutical industry. The Drug and Cosmetic Act and Drug and Cosmetic Rule are the legislations passed by the government in this regard. Through this legislation the government regulates import, manufacture, sale and distribution of drugs in India. The central government plays as the coordinator of policies like drug approval, clinical trials, setting up standards, controlling the quality of imported drugs etc where as the state governments see that the policies laid down by the central government are being implemented by the firms. The Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) co-ordinates all the activities involved. Pharmaceutical industry in India regulated on basis of price, patent quality. DPCO fixes an upper limit on critical formulations API. NPPA regulates the pricing of all the drugs manufactured or sold in India. A firm cannot price its drug on its own; it has to be approved by NPPA. NPPA has also put an upper limit of 150% on MAPE. If the firm invests heavily in RD then the limit is increased by 50%. In 1995 government had amended DPCO to limit the size of drugs under purview of DPCO to 74. After implementation of product patent regime government is mulling over bringing the number of drugs under DPCO to around 200. The Drug Cosmetic act specifies the quality standards to be met for any drugs that is manufactured, sold or distributed in India. Manufactures have to follow GMP in their manufacturing plants. FDI up to 74% is allowed on the automatic route in the case of bulk drugs, their intermediate Pharmaceuticals and formulations (except those produced by the use of recombinant DNA technology). The Government considers FDI above 74% for manufacture of bulk drugs on a case-by-case basis. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s allowed only for manufacture of bulk drugs from basic stages and their intermediates. It also extends to bulk drugs produced by the use of recombinant DNA technology and the specific cell/tissue targeted formulations if it includes manufacturing from basic stage. Government had liberalization plans of increasing the FDI cap to 100% and making the process of investing more easily and investor friendly. The plans were not implemented because of political pressure exerted by the Left Parties on the government. Recent Developments Raw material shortage hits pharmaceutical firms Olympic games in China have put brakes on high-flying Indian pharmaceutical industry. In order to present its clean image before the world during the games, China has ordered to close various drug manufacturing units to prevent environmental degradation. This has caused a scarcity of raw material in India and has pushed up prices of generic medicines. Daiichi Sankyo buys majority stake in Ranbaxy Daiichi Sankyo Company, Ltd (Daiichi Sankyo) has bought majority stake in Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited (Ranbaxy) from the Singh family, the largest controlling shareholders of Ranbaxy. The deal is subject to regulatory approvals. This deal will allow Ranbaxy access to global markets that have been off-radar for the firm till now. Daiichi Sankyo is looking forward to gain a stronger foothold in a very fast developing Indian market as well as the base established by Ranbaxy in USA. Sun Pharmaceuticals gets USFDA nod for generic Depakote The USFDA has granted a final approval to Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd for its Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) for generic Depakote, divalproex sodium delayed release tablets. Divalproex sodium delayed release tablets are indicated as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy in the treatment of patients with complex partial seizures. US Congress to probe FDA`s Ranbaxy case The US House Energy Commerce committee is investigating the FDAs stance on the Ranbaxy case. The committee is to probe FDAs handling on Ranbaxys imports. The committee will also probe whether FDA knowingly let unsafe medicine to enter US. Sun Pharmaceuticals Taro deal Sun Pharmaceuticals, offered $454 million, all in cash, to buy out an Israeli generics manufacturer, Taro Pharmaceuticals. The deal has not been completed as yet because of encountering several roadblocks. Taro Pharmaceuticals is an Israeli pharmaceutical firm with a global presence. By acquiring Taro, Sun is trying to enter the low-competition, specialized segments like dermatology and pediatrics. TaroÃ¢â¬â¢s large presence in the Canadian market is also an attraction for Sun. Key Features of quarter April-June FY09 Ã¢â¬ ¢Improvement in product and geographic mix: Higher contribution from exports (62%) for generics and higher proportion of CRAMS business (46%) were the key highlights of the quarter. Ã¢â¬ ¢Improvement in margins: led by higher overseas and CRAMS sales, a 5. 9% YoY depreciation in the Rupee v/s the USD and increased captive consumption from companies like Dishman, Lupin and Piramal Healthcare. Raw material pressure to persist in the near term: ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to (i) shut down polluting plants around Beijing and (ii) restrict the movement of hazardous chemicals in view of the Olympics resulted in raw material shortages and a consequent increase in prices. A rise in crude oil prices resulted in increases in the price of API solvents and intermediates. Our interaction with a few companies suggests that raw material shortage may persist for the next one-two quarters. Ã¢â¬ ¢Depreciating rupee leads to MTM losses on Forex debt: A 7. % and 9% QoQ depreciation of the rupee v/s the USD and Euro respectively resulted in most companies declaring MTM losses on their FCCBs and foreign debt. Prominent among the losers were Ranbaxy, Jubilant and Cipla. GSK recently signed a deal with Aspen and Strides GSK Pharmaceutical has collaborated with Aspen through which it would have access to a portfolio comprising 1200 products and 450 molecules of Aspen and its JV with Strides. GSK would get these products approved in 95 emerging markets and distribute and market these as well, while Aspen will continue to market in Sub-Saharan Africa and other countries. Jubilant signs drug discovery pact with Amgen Jubilant Bosys Ltd. and Amgen Inc. , the largest US-based biotech company on Monday announced a drug discovery partnership. As per the deal, Amgen and Jubilant will collaborate to develop a portfolio of novel drugs in new target areas of interest across multiple therapeutic areas. Jubilant will develop early preclinical candidates emanating from Amgens early discovery efforts for an initial term of three years. Amgen will have responsibility for the subsequent pre-clinical and clinical development and commercialization. Amgen will retain / own the drugs developed under the collaboration with worldwide commercialization rights. Jubilant Biosys will partner in early-preclinical development effort from its state of the art Jubilant Research Centre Bangalore, while Amgen will pursue later stage pre-clinical and clinical development and commercialization of the drugs in global markets. The financial terms include a combination of research funding and success-based milestones paid to Jubilant during pre-clinical and clinical development for multiple projects undertaken by the collaboration. The total financial Milestone value is subject to successful development and commercialization of the portfolio of novel drugs. Glenmark`s molecule for Neuropathetic Pain to enter Phase I trials Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd has announced that its candidate for Neuropathic Pain, Osteoarthritis and other Inflammatory Pain-GRC 10693 is entering Phase I trials. The company intends to develop GRC 10693, a cannabinoid-2 (CB-2) receptor agonist, in neuropathic pain as the primary indication. The molecule has been filed for Phase-I approval with European regulatory authorities. Biocon, Abraxis launches ABRAXANE in India Biocon Limited and Abraxis BioScience, Inc, a fully integrated biotechnology company announced the launch of ABRAXANE (paclitaxel protein bound particles for injectable suspension) (albumin-bound) in India for the treatment of breast cancer after failure of combination therapy for metastatic disease or relapse within six months of adjuvant chemotherapy, ABRAXANE is now available in India as a single-use 100 mg vial (as a lyophilized powder, to be reconstituted for intravenous administration). The Phase III clinical trial in the U. S. demonstrated that ABRAXANE nearly doubled the response rate, significantly prolonged time to progression, and significantly improved overall survival in the secon line setting versus solvent based Taxol in the approved indication. The Medical House ties up with Dr Reddys Labs The Medical House Plc, a drug delivery specialist has signed a non-exclusive development, licensing and supply agreement with Dr Reddys Laboratories. The agreement covers an initial five-year term of supply, within US, European Union and Canada, with an option for Dr Reddys to extend the agreement to the rest of the world, on mutually agreed terms, the company said in a filing to the London Stock Exchange. The duration of the agreement can also be extended by mutual agreement and the development costs associated with customization would be paid to The Medical House (TMH) in addition to reimbursement of all agreed external costs. Strides completes acquisition of Ascent Pharmahealth Strides Arcolab has completed the acquisition of controlling interest in Ascent Pharmahealth Limited (formerly Genepharm Australasia Limited), thereby making Strides the 4th largest Generics Company in Australia. Strides now holds 50. 1% stake in Ascent Pharmahealth Limited, an ASX listed company. At final closing in Sept Ã¢â¬â¢08, Strides may own upto 55% in Ascent Pharmahealth Ltd. Shareholders have voted to change the name of Genepharm Australasia Limited to Ascent Pharmahealth Limited. Ascent Pharmahealth Limited will include the assets of Drug Houses of Australia [DHA] in Singapore, a wholly owned subsidiary of Strides Revenue in excess of US$90mn on a combined Performa basis. Lupin acquires Hormosan Pharma Lupin Ltd has acquired Hormosan Pharma GmbH (Hormosan), a German Sales and Marketing generics company specialized in the supply of pharmaceutical products for the Central Nervous System (CNS). Hormosan, with total sales of Euro 6. 8mn for the year ended December 2007, develops, licenses and markets a range of generics in Germany. Hormosan has a complementary product portfolio with products in the Central Nervous System and Cardiovascular therapeutic segments. Hormosan has created a strong brand identity in the German generics market through its strong patient compliance message, essential for patients within the CNS sector. Besides strong key account management the company also has a successful in Regulatory team, Pharmacovigilance, Medical Information and Marketing teams. Aurobindo Pharma receives nod for 2 ANDAs Aurobindo Pharma has received final approval from the US Food Drug Administration (USFDA) for 2 ANDAs namely Ceftriaxone for injection USP 250mg, 500mg, 2g and Ceftriaxone for injection USP 10g pharmacy bulk pack. These are Cephalosporins under the Anti-infective segment. Lupin Pharma receives nod for Divaiproex. Sodium Tablets Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (LPI) has received final approval for the Companys Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) for Divaiproex Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets, 125 mg, 250 mg and 500 mg from the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). Commercial shipments of the product have already commenced. Lupin Divaiproex sodium delayed-release tablets are the AB-rated generic equivalent of Abbott Laboratories Depakote tablets. Depakote had annual sales of approximately US$ 803mn for the twelve months ended March 2008, based on IMS Health sales data. Dr Reddy`s lab to invest in Perlecan Pharma Dr Reddys lab has purchased holding of Citigroup Venture Capital International Mauritius Limited its nominees and IDBI Trusteeship Services Limited (the merged entity after its merger with The Western India Trustee and the Executor Company Limited) in Perlecan Pharma Private Limited. The Board of Directors of Dr Reddys Laboratories Limited at their meeting held on July 21, 2008 had approved this proposal aggregating to US$18mn. References: http://www. pharmaceutical-drug-manufacturers. com/pharmaceutical-industry/ http://www. thehindubusinessline. com/iw/2004/07/25/stories/2004072500401000. htm http://www. ibef. org/industry/pharmaceuticals. aspx www. indiainbusiness. nic. in/industry-infrastructure/industrial-sectors/drug-pharma. htm